Saturday, April 26, 2008

Mathematical Artwork Thumbnails

The images below are thumbnails of mathematical artworks I had made. Click the image for greater resolution.

Friday, April 11, 2008

Intelligent Design Conjencture derived from Theory of Evolution

In order for the following Intelligent Design Conjencture to be true, several condition must be met :
- Theory of Evolution must be true.
- Evolution is Turing Complete.
- Evolution go faster in faster computational medium.
- Hard Artificial Intelligence are feasible.

A good scientific theory must be able to make prediction, which can be evaluated by observation.

The theory of evolution is a good scientific theory, its claim have been verified by observation of fossil records from the past. Theory of evolution predicts that some sentient beings given enough time is going to evolve intelligence, and human is but an example of such thing.

The time required for humanity from when they gain full-sapience to modern technology is roughly 200,000 year.

Evolution from sentience to partial-sapience or full-sapience require billions of years, and not all species succeed reaching it.

Given that a species capable of full-sapience, have good probability of existing and continue to develop their technology in the timeline required for sentient species to evolve sapience, it is highly probable that a species will observe powers possessing greater intelligence, by the time they reach sapience.

Which means that if we take a random sapient species evolving naturally from a universe-sized box, most of them are going to observe powers possessing greater intelligence, by the time they reach sapience.

A technological civilization of a sapient species may catalyze the evolution of other sapient species, either via natural intelligence catalization or artificial intelligence catalyzation.

This intelligence catalyzation process may be deliberate or non-deliberate.

Deliberate natural intelligence catalyzation happen if the technological species provolve, train or teach less developed sentient beings, to develop their technological capability.

Non-deliberate natural intelligence catalyzation happen if the less developed sentient beings watch and learn what already technological species does.

Deliberate artificial intelligence catalyzation happen if the technological species create artificially created intelligent agent having full-sapient capability.

Non-deliberate artificial intelligence catalyzation happen if the artificial intelligence results from unexpected result from an experiment conducted by technological species.

If a technological species happen to discover space travel, the extreme difference of condition between worlds may force them to deliberately catalyze the evolution of new intelligent species, for their economic or memetic purpose. Which means that a naturally evolved technological species, may catalyze the evolution of more than one sapient species.

Since evolution process go faster in faster computronium, most species are going to be the result derived from evolution inside faster computronium.

Naturally evolved brain is a faster computronium than natural chemical process and biological evolution of pre-sapient beings. The development of technology means increase in computation demand, which fuel the development of even faster and more effective computronium.

Which means that if we take a random species in this universe, there are higher probability that they are result of evolution in the ideosphere of a technologically advanced species, rather than purely the result of natural evolution.

Which means that if we take a random species in this universe, there are higher probability that they are created by a technologically advanced beings ( very far more advanced than the created species, bordering on godlike ), rather than the result of natural evolution.

Thursday, April 10, 2008

Quadratic Equation Solver

Download a free Quadratic Solver here!!

Quadratic Equation Solver, is an educational program made to explain ways used to solve various problem related to quadratic equations.

The problems it capable of solving is the one, in the patterns like below :
-> x2 + 4x + 6 = 0 , 2x2 + 6x + 7 = 0
-> x2 + 6x + 6 = 12 , 3x2 + 1x + 1 = 25
-> x2 + 2x = 30 , x2 + 33 = -5x
-> x2 = 25 , x2 = -25
-> ( x - 3 )( x + 6 ) = 23 , ( x + 5 )( x +2 ) = 33
-> ( x - 3 )( x + 6 ) = 2x2 + 25
-> etc

And from those equation, the program is capable of deriving the value of :
-> Determinant ( b2 - 4ac ).
-> The roots ( x1 and x2 ) by using quadratic (abc) formula.
-> The roots ( x1 and x2 ) by using factorization.
-> Determining values like x1+x2 ( Sum of Roots ) , x1*x2 ( Product of Roots ) , x1-x2 (Difference between Roots), etc.

In order to understand about how Quadration Equation Solver works, just download the program and follow this tutorial.

After you open the program you will be presented several interesting mathematical applications and scientific topics. The URL can be clicked if you are interested about the article.

But if your primary goal is to solve a Quadratic Equation, you better continue to "Quadratic Solver" page.

Solving x2 + 5x + 4 = 0 using factorization

There you will be presented several type of Quadratic equation, the program capable of solving. In the example above, I requested the program to solve x2 + 5x + 4 = 0 ( watch, which radio button is on ), using factorization method ( watch, which check box is checked ). Then I click "Solve the Equation" button.

Factoring x2 + 5x + 4 = 0

Unlike most Quadratic Solver, this program will tell you the ways required to get the answer, in detail.

So now, how can I ask for the value of Sum of Roots ( x1 + x2 ) and the value of Product of Roots ( x1x2 ), from equation like -x2 + 3x + 4 = -2x2-2x ?

Just light up the second radio button to choose the form of equation you want to solve ( cyan ), and choose what you want to know from that equation ( red ). Then click "Solve the Equation" button.

And the program will tell you how to get the answer, like the example above.

If you happen to have some free time, re-visit my blog in the future to give some comment or advice about the program, by clicking the URL above inside the program.

You may also copy the program to your friends for free, but you may want to remind them to download the latest version directly from this blog.

Have fun using the program. :D

Monday, April 7, 2008

Provolution and Fongoli Chimps

Some animal lovers have known for a long time, that animals are not as stupid as people usually think of. It seems that this claim is not merely a hoax. The definition of a useful scientific theory, is that it must make a predictions, which can be verified by observation, and the theory of evolution, predicts that there are possibility that other sentient beings on Earth may someday become intelligent species, just like human.

When I was a 10 years old child, I made a comic series, which only I and my siblings read. The settings of the comic are about millions of years in the future, when human had perished, while arks filled with different species of animals was sent to the space. My comic was largely influenced by the polular anime and manga at that time, Doraemon (by Fujiko F Fujio) and Astro Boy (by Ozamu Tezuka). Even now, I still think that everybody, even adults, should watch the anime. There are some good memetic content in both manga, which later I recognize as transhumanism, when I come across a website, called Orion's Arm.

Kind of cartoon I draw when I was 10 years old.

Funny enough that in high school I grow to become a religious, there is a path that I feel must follow, which lead me to become a member of my high school's religious community. There, I met two of my best friends, who are still my best friends until now. At that time, I learned about Creationism, and even my first paper, I wrote in high school is about Creationism, opposing my previous evolutionary worldview. Creationism told that every living being in Earth was created to be perfect, during my study of programming, I learned that a perfect system, must be able to change and perfectly adapt to environmental change. So did I abandon Creationism ? Well, no, but I will tell more about that in later post.

So when I met a website called Orion's Arm, I was drawn to it by a concept called provolution, which basically means that you can make humanoid form of any animal and give them intelectual capability as well ( unplifting ). I suspect that this meme had infected me since fairy tales depicting talking animals was told to me.

Article about Fongoli Chimps from National Geographic website.

But this may not be just a fairy tale, since I read an article about Fongoli Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes verus ), written by an Assistant Professor of Antropology Jill Pruetz ( blog ), from Iowa State University.

In the article, it is said that Fongoli Chimps, had begin to hunt bush babies ( Galago senegalensis ) by using spears they made from the branches of local tree. What surprised me, is the fact that in the article, it is mentioned that the chimps sharpened their spear, before using them for hunting, which is a proof that they had invented tool making by themselves. The article is also present in Iowa State University news service and her paper. The spear the chimps used can be seen in her paper.

Funny enough that there are some difference between what happened with the chimps, and what mostly believed to be happened in human evolution. It is believed that in case of human, it is the male who hunt, while the female looks for vegetables, but in case of Fongoli Chimps, it is female who go and hunt. May be they haven't invented agriculture, yet. A more funny thing is the fact that the method of making spears seems to be more complicated, the younger the chimps are, which show that there are some ongoing technology development on the play.

The issue that I am currently interesting of is "what humanity, as their older full-sapient siblings should do ?". Should we let them develop their own technology at their pace, or should we teach them what we know ? Are we going to enter an age, where animals can talk and interact with us as equals ? Will our world become like how it be in the fairy tales ? Will one day we see chimpanzee and human, learning the same thing in the same school and classroom ?

I will be interested to know different reaction from different people, feel free to make an educated comment.

Characters from Utawarerumono, an anime depicting a world where animals have become humanoid sapient beings.

Thursday, April 3, 2008

Cellular Automata

Several days ago, I read an entry about Cellular Automation in Wikipedia, which links to a page titled Conway's Game of Life. In that page I learned that there is a simple rule in Cellular Automation, capable of generating complex pattern. Since I had been interested in the concept for a long time, I made the program yesterday (April 1st 2008).

There are many rules, which can be used in a Cellular Automation program. A Cellular Automation's rule have to mention what neighborhood condition should be fulfilled, to make a cell born, unchanged, or dies. The image above for example, is generated using rule 1/1, which means that for each cell, having one neighbor is going to come to life, but will die of loneliness if it have no neighbor, or die of overcrowd if it have more than one neighbor.

You can see the lexicon of rules, and the possible outcome in this Index of Rule.

Gosper's Glider Gun (Rule 23/3)

One of the pattern in Cellular Automation that I'm fond of is Gosper's Glider Gun which use Rule 23/3. The Gun, continuously produce a glider, which is a pattern capable of traversing the map. Since the glider is going to leave away, as soon as its pattern emerged from the reaction in a Gosper's Glider Gun, the Gun appear to shoot, with a glider as its ammunition.

I used Gosper's Glider Gun, to make a pattern consisting of 16 Gosper's Glider Guns, to make a Collider above. The collision between glider are unpredictable. Sometimes they explosively annihilate, sometimes they calmly annihilate, depend on how they collide.

The Collider is not stable, it will slowly degenerate itself to become the pattern above. The pattern above consist of only p1-oscillator and still lives. ( For definition of p1-oscillator and still lives, see this
Lexicon Of Life ).

I had made the X-Collider above as well, using 16 Gosper's Glider Guns in 4 different phase. The X-Collider, will continue to make a lot of glider collisions, and exhibit chaotic behavior. Whether these will result in degeneration or oscillation, is yet unknown. I haven't tried to play it long enough.

By merging different pattern I found in this Lexicon Of Life, I made the Space station above from components such as gliders, glider duplicators, octagon IIs,
octagon IVs, non-monotonic spaceships, and sparky spaceships. ( See the definition of each component in the Lexicon Of Life )

Download Cellular Automata Installer here.